On And Off Officials

Anyone heard the joke about the ref who should buy a ticket to the game because they were ball watching? As a fan, your natural inclination is to watch where the ball goes. It takes will power and self-discipline to overcome that habit. An official that ball watches will consistently miss fouls and violations. It more »

4 C’s of Signals: Clear, Crisp, Consistent, Confidant

Until the late 1800s, baseball umpires did not use any signals. Some historians credit William “Dummy” Hoy, a deaf player with the Washington Nationals, with introducing hand signals for balls and strikes, safe and out calls.  Others, credit umpire  Bill “The Old Arbiter” Klem, who began officiating two years after Hoy retired, with inventing hand more »

2019 Rules Questions and Interpretations

Rules Questions and Rulings Here are some of the rules questions we have received this season to rules@galaxref.com and the rulings that were made. Please be sure to familiarize yourself with these situations and interpretations.